# Papers and Slides

## BWM Slides

In this presentation you can find an explanation of the two models (non-linear BWM and linear BWM) with a numerical example.

## The two original papers

Here are the two original papers which introduce the BWM, the first one presents the main philosophy and foundation of the method and a non-linear model, while the second one includes a linear model.

###### Rezaei, J. (2015). Best-Worst Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method, Omega, 53, pp. 49-57.

In this paper, a new method, called best-worst method (BWM) is proposed to solve multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems. In an MCDM problem, a number of alternatives are evaluated with respect to a number of criteria in order to select the best alternative(s). According to BWM, the best (e.g. most desirable, most important) and the worst (e.g. least desirable, least important) criteria are identified first by the decision-maker. Pairwise comparisons are then conducted between each of these two criteria (best and worst) and the other criteria. A minimax problem is then formulated and solved to determine the weights of different criteria. The weights of the alternatives with respect to different criteria are obtained using the same process. The final scores of the alternatives are derived by aggregating the weights from different sets of criteria and alternatives, based on which the best alternative is selected. A consistency ratio is proposed for the BWM to check the reliability of the comparisons. To illustrate the proposed method and evaluate its performance, we used some numerical examples and a real-word decision-making problem (mobile phone selection). For the purpose of comparison, we chose AHP (analytic hierarchy process), which is also a pairwise comparison-based method. Statistical results show that BWM performs significantly better than AHP with respect to the consistency ratio, and the other evaluation criteria: minimum violation, total deviation, and conformity. The salient features of the proposed method, compared to the existing MCDM methods, are: (1) it requires less comparison data; (2) it leads to more consistent comparisons, which means that it produces more reliable results.

###### Rezaei, J. (2016). Best-worst multi-criteria decision-making method: Some properties and a linear model, Omega, 64, pp. 126-130.

The Best Worst Method (BWM) is a multi-criteria decision-making method that uses two vectors of pairwise comparisons to determine the weights of criteria. First, the best (e.g. most desirable, most important), and the worst (e.g. least desirable, least important) criteria are identified by the decision-maker, after which the best criterion is compared to the other criteria, and the other criteria to the worst criterion. A nonlinear minimax model is then used to identify the weights such that the maximum absolute difference between the weight ratios and their corresponding comparisons is minimized. The minimax problem may result in multiple optimal solutions. Although, in some cases, decision-makers prefer to have multiple optimal solutions, in other cases they prefer to have a unique solution. The aim of this paper is twofold: firstly, we propose using interval analysis for the case of multiple optimal solutions, in which we show how the criteria can be weighed and ranked. Secondly, we propose a linear model for BWM, which is based on the same philosophy, but yields a unique solution.

## BWM bibliographical database

You can also find the BWM bibliographical database here (the list is updated regularly).